Capital: Lima
Population: 30.97m. (2014 est.)

Peru ratified ILO Convention No. 87 (Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organise, 1948) in 1960 and Convention No. 98 (Right to Organise and Collective Bargaining, 1949) in 1964.

Trade union strikes and protests have been repressed by the authorities and by employers in Peru, and trade unionists have been subject to harassment and attacks. Dismissals of striking workers and slow processes of reinstatement in both legal and illegal strikes are common, providing an effective method used by employers to dissuade workers from striking. Other anti-union tactics increasingly used by employers were criminal charges alleging material damages against striking workers, delaying collective bargaining processes through lack of interest and the use of subcontracting to avoid direct employment contracts. There have been instances of violent repression of strike action by security forces.

On 25 May 2015, one worker was killed and around 200 reported injured when police fired on striking miners at Marcona, Nazca province, in Peru’s coastal region of Ica. During 2017, the authorities responded to trade union protests with a range of repressive measures, including the declaration of a state of emergency, the deployment of the military, and the use of projectile weapons, including rubber bullets, to suppress demonstrations. In the early 2010s 14 construction union leaders were reported murdered, all members of the FTCCP, the largest construction workers union in Peru. The union attributed the violence to the growth in illegal construction unions engaged in extortion schemes.

Peru today has four trade union centrals, of these the Confederación General de Trabajadores del Peru (CGTP, English: General Confederation of Workers of Peru) is the largest trade union centre, representing around 98,000 members. It is affiliated to the WFTU. The ITUC-affiliated Confederación Unitaria de Trahajadores del Perú (CUT, English: United Confederation of Workers of Peru) represents 25,000 members.

Full details of the country's political history, the development of trade unionism, and contact and affiliation details for all national trade union centres can be found in ICTUR's in-depth global reference book: Trade Unions of the World.

Link to reportFull country profile: Peru, from Trade Unions of the World (2016)

Link to letterIntervention letter: repression of strike action (2017)

Link to reportIUR article: 'Free Trade and Precarity in Peru: US Department of Labor reviews
freedom of association rights', by Ciaran Cross (2016):

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